MCODE is a Cytoscape plugin that finds clusters (highly interconnected regions) in a network. Clusters mean different things in different types of networks. For instance, clusters in a protein-protein interaction network are often protein complexes and parts of pathways, while clusters in a protein similarity network represent protein families. Cytoscape is freely available network visualization and analysis software.

MCODE is a relatively fast method of clustering. With an intuitive interface, it is suited for both computationally and biologically oriented researchers. Current features include:

Currently, MCODE does not provide any statistical score on the resulting clusters but can be used as a discovery tool in network analysis.

Please see the MCODE paper for more information.

Also be sure to consult the documentation for screen shots, descriptions, and tutorials.

Latest Download

Cytoscape 3

With Cytoscape 3, you can download the latest MCODE version directly from within the software using the App Manager (Apps > App Manager). Just search for "MCODE" in the Install Apps section. You can also download and install the MCODE app from the Cytoscape App Store.

Cytoscape 2

MCODE v1.32 is the current version for Cytoscape 2.

With Cytoscape 2.6 (or later), you can download the latest MCODE version directly from within the software using the Plugin Manager (Plugins > Manage Plugins). MCODE is found under the Analysis category.

Otherwise, you may install the plugin manually: Download the latest version for Cytoscape 2

If you are a software developer, the MCODE algorithm is easy to incorporate into your own Java software. Just download the source code to get started. MCODE source code and Javadoc are made available through Subversion (SVN), a version control repository.

Previous Versions

MCODE v1.31

MCODE v1.3

MCODE v1.2

MCODE v1.1

MCODE v1.0

Literature and Resources

MCODE Publication

Please see the following paper for more information about the algorithm:


The MCODE User's Manual is both a great place to start learning the basics and a helpful reference for expert users. It includes installation instructions, explanations, definitions, examples and tutorials to help you produce, interpret, output, and validate results.

You can also check the old manual if you are using and older version of MCODE.

A presentation of MCODE from 2003, explaining the algorithm in detail.

Cytoscape Tutorials

A great deal of introductory and advanced tutorials are available at the Cytoscape Tutorial Resource. Section 7: Modules and Complexes incorporates MCODE, and several other plugins, in a complex discovery and validation exercise.

Source Code

Get the source code from GitHub.

Future Developments


Bugs / Feature Requests

If you encounter a bug with this plugin, or have a feature suggestion, please e-mail Gary Bader. Be sure to take a look at the Future Developments section before e-mailing a feature request.


This software is open-source. If you modify the source code and would like the modification to be included in a subsequent release, we would love to hear from you. Please send me an e-mail to Gary Bader.


Version 1.3 is a Cytoscape compatibility update and was produced in conjunction with Mike Smoot and the Cytoscape development team.

Version 1.2 was produced by Vuk Pavlovic in the Bader Lab. Thanks to Christopher Workman (The Technical University of Denmark) and Carlo Laudanna (University of Verona) for their expert input during beta-testing.

This software was originally released as a command-line-only program from the Hogue Lab. It was created by Gary Bader, currently based in the Bader Lab at the University of Toronto (formerly in the Sander Group, Computational Biology Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York City)

This software is made available under the LGPL (Lesser General Public License), which means that you can freely use it within your own software, but if you alter the code itself and distribute it, you must make the source code alterations freely available as well.

Original command line version

The original command line version is available (originally published with the MCODE paper at but no longer available at this URL). This version is expected to work, but is no longer being maintained.


Software/MCODE (last edited 2020-11-02 00:56:51 by ChristianLopes)

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